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ENGL 1010: College Composition & Rhetoric: Cite Sources

Research guide for all English 1010 sections at University of Wyoming (including Bridge)

Style Guide

For many of your style and citation questions, it's best to go straight to the source! Find a copy of the MLA style manual at the Help Desk.

APA Style (American Psychological Association)

Is your ENGL 1010 instructor allowing you to use APA instead of MLA?

Click this link to go to our APA style guide.

Citing Images and Video

In general, you need the author/creator last name and a page number or other location, like the time stamp on a video or audio source.



Rosenberg, Douglas (Director). Dancing on the Edge. Dance Online: Dance in Video, Stephanie Reinhart, Charles L. Reinhart, and Douglas Rosenberg (Producers), Volume 1, American Dance Festival, 1992. 

(Rosenberg 0:15:32)

A painting viewed online:

Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975. MOMA,

More info on the Purdue Owl website. 

In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citations typically go at the end of a sentence that quote, paraphrases, or refers to a source. Closing punctuation for that sentence goes after the citation.

Each item cited in your text should have a corresponding item in your bibliography.

Standard citation
List the author's last name followed by a page number: (Barron 194).

Author has more than one work in your bibliography?
Add a short title to your citation: (Barron, "Redefining" 194).

Source has no author?
Use a short form of the title: (Reading at Risk 3)

Source has no page numbers?
Exclude page numbers or use a marker that is prominent in the text (like paragraph numbers, section numbers, time stamps, chapter numbers, line numbers, etc): (Chan, par. 41), (sec. 3), "Hush" 00:03:16-17), (ch. 17), ("Ode" 1-3), etc.

Citing more than one source in a single sentence?
Separate the citations with a semicolon: (Baron 194; Jacobs 55).

Already mentioned the author's name in the sentence?
Omit the author's name from the citation: (194).

Citing the Bible?
Use the title, followed by abbreviated book name, followed by chapter and verse separated by a period: (Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

Citing Shakespeare?
Use the play's abbreviated title followed by act, scene, and line numbers separated by periods: (Mac. 1.5.17).

Citation Examples- Reference List (8th Edition)

Your bibliography should be alphabetized by author last name. For works that do not have an author, alphabetize by item title (omitting articles like "a" or "the"). Your bibliography should also be formatted using hanging indents.

Journal Article

Last Name, First Name MI. “Title of Article.” Journal Title, vol. #, no. #, Mon. Year, pp. #-#. Database, doi    if listed

Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, spring 2010, pp. 69-

88. JSTOR,


Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or reference book

Last Name, First Name MI. “Title of Article.” Reference Source Title, edited by First Name Last Name, vol. #, Publisher, Year Published, pp. #-#.

Online Publisher, https://xxxx

Botterill, Steven N. “Angela Da Foligno, Saint.” Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia, edited by Christopher Kleinhenz et al., vol. 1, Routledge, 2004,

pp. 35-36. Google Books,


Basic Book Format

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

  • Book with more than one author
    • Last name, First Name and First Name Last Name.
  • Books with 3+ authors
    • Last name, First Name et al.

Edited Book

Last name, First name MI., editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year

Sánchez Prado, Ignacio M., editor. Mexican Literature in Theory. Bloomsbury, 2018.


Chapter in a Book

Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, Edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-


Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Masque of the Red Death." The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y.

Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library,;view=1up;seq=266.


Newspaper Articles


Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper [City of Publication if not stated in newspaper title], Day Month Year of

Publication, URL.

In-print or through database:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper [City of Publication if not stated in newspaper title], Day Month Year of

Publication, pp. Page Numbers if given. Database Name.


Web sites

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of website, Day Mon. Year, website link

If no author name, “Article Title.” should be the first part of your citation.


Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014, the-death-of-the-artist-and-the-birth-of-thecreative-entrepreneur/383497/.

          “Acoustical Recording.” Library of Congress, 2022,


Note that in this example, the optional original date of publication is included, as well as several people in the Other Contributors category. If you were studying a particular person associated with the work, that person could be listed in the Author position, like so:

"Capra, Frank, director." It’s a Wonderful Life. 1946. Directed by Frank Capra, Performance by James Stewart et al., Republic, 2001.


Television Episodes
Whether you decide to put the episode director into the author position or not depends on the show and your use of the show in your writing. If the show features episodes with distinct story lines or dramatic styles, the director for each episode may take on authorial importance, otherwise the creator or director of the series as a whole may be placed in the author position. If no one takes authorial importance for your work, place the title of the episode in the first position.

Bernstein, Adam director. "Hazard Pay." Breaking Bad, season 5, episode 3, High Bridge Productions et al., 29 Jul 2012.

"Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Geller, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.


Image or Artwork
If you view it first hand, the Location is the physical location of the work. If you view a reproduction, follow the standard rules for Containers. If your image has no title, give a brief description of the item in the title location. Do not include quotation marks or italicize this description.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Louvre Museum, Paris.

DaVinci, Leonado. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Wikipedia,,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg.                Image of cat. 2016, Work      in a series.

Clowes, Daniel. David Boring. Eightball, no. 19, Fantagraphics, 1998.

MLA Online Guides

MLA Citation Style is used when writing or citing works in the humanities.

Many of the library databases will create an MLA style citation for you! When this isn't available, the guides below can help you create your own.