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Citation and Style Guides: APA

A quick guide to common citation styles.

Style Guide

For many of your style and citation questions, it's best to go straight to the source! Find a copy of the APA manual at the Help Desk.

Style Guide Supplement

APA Online Guides

APA Citation Style is used when writing or citing works in the social sciences or business.

In-Text Citations

APA Style uses what is called an author-date method of citation. The author's surname is inserted with the correct year of publication for the resource.

This citation is used to identify where an idea, thought, or concept originates as you write a research paper. It is placed at the end of a sentence, paragraph, or thought, depending on where your research appears.

Refer to the examples below to review the different ways you can create an in-text citation.


Material Type

In-Text Citation Example

Author's name in text

 Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples...

Author's name as a reference

 The study also showed that there was a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression (Kessler, 2003).

Two authors' names as a reference

 The effects of the study have been demonstrated in the trials (Abrams & Evans, 2007).

Works with no identified author

 Important data collected by the Dept. of Education in Victoria has prompted the creation of fact sheets that can be found online ("Fact Sheet Four," 2010).

Citation Examples - Reference List

Books (Print): One Author

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer decency. 

London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Books (Print): Two Authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.

​Rosellini, G. & Worden, M. (2010). Of course you're angry: A guide to dealing with the

emotions of substance abuse. Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Journal Article (Print)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume number(issue number),

page numbers.

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration

in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law

Enforcement Review Executive Forum Journal8(1), 73-82.

Chapter in an Edited Book (Print)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book

(pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

​Haybron, M. D. (2008). Philosophy and the science of the subjective well-being.

In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43).

New York City, NY: Guilford Press.

Newspaper Article (Print)

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper title. pp. page numbers

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The

Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.



Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx.

Dubov, N. D. (2003). Key Jewish facts. Retrieved from


Journal Article (Online)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume number(issue number),

page numbers. doi: or URL of the journal's home page.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the

survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology24(2), 225-229. doi:


Encyclopedia Entry (Online)

Author, A. A. (Year). WORD. In A. A. Author (Ed.), Title of Encyclopedia (Edition).

Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx.

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of

philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

Website with an Author*

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Website title. Retrieved

from http://www.xxxxx.

Waterman, H. (2016, March 23). On men and women's speech. JSTOR Daily.

Retrieved from

* websites with no author will omit the Author section. If no date can be found, you can put a 'n.d.'


Motion Picture

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion

picture [Motion Picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Feige, K. (Producer), & Abrams, J. J. (Director). (2012). The Avengers [Motion

Picture]. United States: Marvel Studios.

Song Recording

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from

writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.].

Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from copyright date)

lang, k.d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY:

Nonesuch Records.