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American Indians: Government Information: Home

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American Indians

Census Data
Indian Trust
    Administrative Law
    Case Law
    Constitutional Law
    Executive Orders
Sacred Sites


USA.Gov for Tribal Governments and Native Americans
Portal site with links to federal agencies and programs in the areas of education, jobs, economic development, family, health, housing, land, environment, legal and other resources.

Census Data

American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Data and Links
Statistical information from the Census Bureau covers the 2000 and 1990 censuses, tribes, reservations and trust areas. Also has rankings and comparisons, economic data, and maps.

Data from the American Comunity Survey, dececcial census, and social and economic characteristics of the population.


Data from the 2007 Census of Agriculture


American Indians and Crime
Provides information on violent crime rates and characteristics and summary data on American Indians in the justice system.

Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in Indian Country, 2002
Presents information on tribal law enforcement agencies, tribal courts and services, and criminal record systems from the 2002 Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in American Indian Jurisdictions.

Jails in Indian Country
Report on all 70 confinement facilities, detention centers, jails, and other facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The latest data is 2015.

Neither Safe Nor Secure: An Assessment of Indian Detention Facilities
The Interior Department Office of the Inspector General's assessment "revealed a long history of neglect and apathy on the part of BIA officials, which has resulted in serious safety, security and maintenance deficiencies at the majority of the facilities."

Policing on American Indian Reservations
Report discusses the demands placed on reservation police and includes a literature review, survey data, and on-site visits.

Resources for Indian Country Jails: Selected Bibliography From the NIC Information Center
National Institute of Corrections bibliography includes materials on facility design, construction, operations, staffing, alternatives to building, inmate/offender programs, and reentry/transition to the community.

Youth Gangs in Indian Country
Uses survey data from the National Youth Gang Center to provide an overview of youth gang activity in Indian Country.


Handbook of North American Indians
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978- Coe Ref E 77 .H25 v. 1-
Like Hodge's 1912 Handbook (see below), this 20-volume set is designed to summarize knowledge about all American Indians north of Mexico. Articles are authored by experts and cover history and prehistory, culture, languages and human biology. Not all volumes have been published. Click on the call number to see individual volume descriptions and library holdings.

Hodge, Frederick Webb.Handbook of American Indians, North of Mexico. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1912.Coe Ref E 77 .H69 v. 1-2
First published in 1912, the Handbook gives brief descriptions of all Indian tribes north of Mexico. Descriptions include history, ethnic relations, location, population statistics and a list of sources. Contributors include some of the most famous 19th century anthropologists.

U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Reports (Doc SI 2.1:) and Bulletins (Doc SI 2.3:) include most of the Smithsonian Institution's ethnological research on American Indians. For the contents of individual titles, consult the index.


American Indian and Alaska Native Owned Firms (2007 Economic Census Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises.
"In 2007, American Indians and Alaska Natives owned 236,967 nonfarm U.S. businesses operating in the fifty states and the District of Columbia, an increase of 17.7 percent from 2002. These American Indian- and Alaska Native-owned firms accounted for 0.9 percent of all nonfarm businesses in the United States, employed 184,416 persons (0.2 percent of total employment) and generated $34.4 billion in receipts (0.1 percent of all receipts)."

Indian Arts and Crafts Board
Part of the Department of the Interior, the Indian Arts and Crafts Board was established by Congress to promote economic development by expanding the Indian arts and crafts market. The Board also implements and enforces the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990.

Indian Economic Development: Relationship to EDA Grants and Self-Determination Contracting is Mixed
Government Accountability Office study concludes that grants have mixed results in job creation, income and private sector investment.

Small Business Administration Office of Native American Affairs
The Office has links to specific SBA programs, resources and a list of Native American businesses.


American Indians and Alaska Natives in Postsecondary Education
This report summary compiles data on Native American participation in higher education, with emphasis on 2 and 4-year colleges. The full report (412 pages) is also available.

Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools
Government Accountability Office report to assess BIA school funding.

Characteristics of American Indian and Alaska Native Education
National Center for Education Statistics report from the Schools and Staffing Survey for 1993-94 discusses schools serving Native Americans and examines trends in Indian education since 1990.

National Indian Education Study 2007 Part I: Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native Students at Grades 4 and 8 on NAEP 2007 Reading and Mathematics Assessments (U.S. National Center for Education Statistics)

National Indian Education Study Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8 (U.S. National Center for Education Statistics)

Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2008 (U.S. National Center for Education Statistics)
Report examines American Indian educational progress and challenges.


Casino Gaming Regulation: Roles of Five States and the National Indian Gaming Commission
Government Accountability Office (formerly General Accounting Office) report on regulatory efforts in Arizona, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, and Washington.

National Indian Gaming Commission
The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal agency established under the Indian Gaming Act of 1988 to regulate gaming activities on Indian lands.

Tax Policy: A Profile of the Indian Gaming Industry
Government Accountability Office report to the Committee on Ways and Means summarizes the Indian gaming industry, gives information on revenue transferred to tribes, compares Indian gaming revenues to other legal gaming, and discusses federal tax treatment of tribes and Indian individuals.


American Indian or Alaska Native Population
Tables from Health, United States cover population, births, deaths, health status, risk factors, chronic disease, ambulatory and inpatient care, personnel, health care coverage, and federal programs.

American Indians/Alaska Natives (Substance Abuse)
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration reports cover general substance abuse, cigarette use, marijuana and inhalant use, treatment admissions, treatment facilities, and risk factors

Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System
Incorporates information from the "Native American Health Care Disparities Briefing" (see below) and interviews with tribal leaders and members, policy analysts, researchers, and representatives of the Indian Health Service and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services to evaluate disparities in health care for Native Americans

Health Disparities Experienced by American Indians and Alaska Natives
Special issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report describes disparities in health for preventable conditions such as diabetes, cancer, bronchiolitis, and injuries.

Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population
Vital statistics (births, deaths, fertility rates) from the National Center for Health Statistics

Indian Health Service Program Statistics
IHS fact sheet for 2012.

Native American Health (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
This site has links to news, research, prevention/screening, specific conditions, and statistics on Native Americans.

Surveillance for Health Behaviors of American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997-2000
Report summarizes findings for health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, HIV testing, and perceived risk of HIV infection.

Indian Trust

Government Accountability Office Reports and Testimony
Click on "Search for words or phrases in titles, abstracts, and subjects" and enter "Indian trust funds" (use the quotation marks). You should retrieve over 30 documents.

Indian Trust
Department of the Interior web site has news, speeches, Department of Justice documents, trust management plans, quarterly reports to the court on reform, and other documents relating to Indian trust.

The Indian Trust Fund Lawsuit
The U.S. Justice Department filings in the case of Cobell v. Salazar et. al.

Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians
Created under the American Indian Trust Fund Reform Act of 1994, the Office of the Special Trustee's duties are to improve accountability and management of Indian trust funds.


Administrative Law

Administrative Decisions & Other Actions By Agency (University of Virginia)
Site provides links to administrative actions that are outside the scope of the Code of Federal Regulations.

Bureau of Indian Affairs Directives
Site also has links to the Department of the Interior and Indian Affairs manuals, handbook, Assistant Secretary's Orders, and national and regional policy memoranda.

Opinions of the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior Relating to Indian Affairs, 1917-1974

Case Law

Indian Land Areas Judicially Established 1978
The map depicts the result of cases (citations included) before the U.S. Indian Claims Commission or the U.S. Court of Claims in which a tribe proved its original occupancy of a tract in the continental U.S.

Seminal Supreme Court Cases Regarding Federal Indian Law
Wisconsin Judicare Indian Law Office has provided links to the full text of the most important Supreme Court cases affecting federal Indian law.

Supreme Court of the United States
Click on "Opinions" for the latest slip opinions. Bound volumes of U.S. Reports are online from 1991 to present. Prior editions are in the Library Annex at Doc Ju 6.8:

Tribal Court Decisions
Includes over 2,700 Tribal Court opinions, memorandums and orders from 21 tribal courts

Constitutional Law

Tribal Constitutions

United States Constitution
See Article 1, Section 8. The "Indian commerce clause" has been interpreted as the main source of power for congressional legislation.

United States Constitution: Analysis and Interpretation
Click on the 2002 edition and then open Article 1. Scroll to page 278 in the .PDF for an expanded discussion and list of cases on the "Indian commerce clause."

Executive Orders

Executive Orders Disposition Tables 1937-- present
Executive Orders are presidential documents managing federal government operations. Full text of the Orders is available from 1993. The text of earlier Orders appears in the Federal Register and in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 3

Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Volume VII
Scroll down to Part IV for the text of Executive Orders from 1936-1971.


Code of Federal Regulations, Title 25: Indians
Browse federal regulations on Indians.

Federal Register
Search for rules, proposed rules, and notices of federal agencies. Includes executive orders and other presidential documents.

Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (List of Federally Recognized Tribes)

Unified Agenda
Federal agencies are required to publish semiannual (April and October) agendas that they are developing or have recently completed.


Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties
Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is a compilation of U.S. treaties, laws and executive orders on American Indian tribes. Treaties are covered from 1778 to 1883 and laws and executive orders from 1871 to 1970.

Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894
Part of the United States Congressional Serial Set (Number 4015), the Schedule of Indian Land Cessions has 709 entries of cessions or reservations up to 1894. There are links to maps for each entry and the volume can be browsed by tribe, state or territory and date.

Key Legislatiion (Senate Committee on Indian Affairs)
The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs has a list of bills and bill status on Native Americans. See Legislation at the top of the page.


State-Tribal Legislation Database
Covers legislation in 16 different topic areas relating to Native Americans in all U.S. states from 1998 to present

Subcommittee on Indian and Alaska Native Affairs (House Committee on Natural Resources)
Subcommittee has links to issues, legislation, and reports.

Tribal Codes

United States Code
Open the year, then select Title 25: Indians.



National NAGPRA
The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act requires that federally-funded public and private museums and Federal agencies return certain Native American cultural items -- human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony -- to lineal descendants, and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations.

National NAGPRA Online Databases
The databases identify current official tribal contacts, inventory Federal Register Notices pertaining to human remains and funerary objects and intent to repatriate, and provide information about culturally unidentifiable remains.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Repatriation Office
Repatriation for the Smithsonian Institution is covered by the National Museum of the American Indian Act. An annual report, repatriation reports by tribe, and other data are available from the Repatriation Office home page.

Sacred Sites

American Indian Religious Freedom Act
Protects right of American Indians to practice traditional religions, including access to sites, use of sacred objects, and freedom to worship through traditional rites and ceremonies. The Act was amended in 1994 to include the traditional use of peyote.

Indian Sacred Sites (Executive Order No. 13007)
Executive Order 13007 directs federal agencies to provide access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners and to avoid adverse effects on such sites.

Congressional hearings on Native American Sacred Places.